本文发表在 International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 27, pages 591–598 (2014)
职业危害，显微镜使用，人体工程学，肌肉骨骼问题 Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. Keywords
Occupational hazards, Microscope use, Ergonomics, Musculoskeletal problems
材料与方法 基于问卷的调查，调查对象是50名专业人员和技术人员，他们在病理学、微生物学、血液学和细胞学实验室定期使用显微镜。 A questionnaire based survey done on 50 professionals and technicians who used microscope regularly in pathology, microbiology, hematology and cytology laboratories.
结果 62%的受试者宣称他们患有肌肉骨骼问题，最常见的部位是颈部和背部。在使用显微镜的受试者中，肌肉骨骼问题的最大患病率为11-15年，每周超过30小时。62%的受试者知道工作场所的人机工程学。在显微镜使用之间，每15-30分钟，有56%的显微镜使用者会定期进行短暂的伸展运动，而58%的使用者会在视觉上休息。多达94%的受试者报告了某种形式的视觉问题。44%的显微镜用户感到长时间在显微镜上工作会感到压力。 Sixty two percent of subjects declared that they were suffering from musculoskeletal problems, most common locations being neck and back. Maximum prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was noted in those using microscope for 11–15 years and for more than 30 h/week. Sixty two percent of subjects were aware of workplace ergonomics. Fifty six percent of microscope users took regular short breaks for stretching exercises and 58% took visual breaks every 15–30 min in between microscope use sessions. As many as 94% subjects reported some form of visual problem. Fourty four percent of microscope users felt stressed with long working hours on microscope.
结论 显微镜使用者最常见的职业问题是颈部和背部的肌肉骨骼问题，眼睛疲劳，屈光不正加重、头痛，长时间工作引起的压力以及在使用显微镜期间或之后的焦虑。迫切需要提高对各种职业危害及其预防所产生的不可逆作用的认识。 The most common occupational concerns of microscope users were musculoskeletal problems of neck and back regions, eye fatigue, aggravation of ametropia, headache, stress due to long working hours and anxiety during or after microscope use. There is an immediate need for increasing awareness about the various occupational hazards and their irreversible effects to prevent them. Garima Jain and Pushparaja Shetty, Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope[J]. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 27, pages 591–598 (2014)